Advertising is a means of communication with the user of any product or service. Advertising Association of UK defines advertising as “the messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them”.
Advertisements always exist, although people may not be conscious of it. At present, advertising uses every possible media like television, radio, print, internet billboards, etc. to convey the message.
The advertising industry comprises of organisations that advertise, agencies that incorporate the advertisements, media that publish the ads, and a bunch of people like copy editors, visualizers, brand managers, researchers, creative heads, and designers who chariot it to the end users or the customers.
An organisation that needs to advertise its products and services employ an advertising agency. The company briefs itself and the products, and the ideas and values the company carries. The ad agency metrifys the ideas and values and devices visuals, texts, and layouts.
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF ADVERTISING
Various goals and objectives are engaged in advertising. These goals and objectives can either be short-term or long-term. Short term goals and objectives focus on the ad copy. Long-term objectives and goals focus on the desired effects of advertising.
1. BRAND POSITIONING
Brand positioning can be defined as a positioning strategy, brand strategy or a brand positioning statement. The end goal is to generate a unique idea in the customers’ mind so that the customer relates something desirable and connects with the brand, which is distinct from the rest of the brands in the marketplace.
Brand positioning relates to the consumers rational to purchase your brand in preference to the others. It makes sure that all brand activity has a common end goal. Brand positioning is guided and directed by the brands’ edge or the reasons to buy. Brand positioning must take care of the following points that are-
- It must be unique and distinct from its competitors, and it should be significant and be encouraging in the niche market.
- The brand positioning must be appropriate and clear to all geographic markets and businesses.
- Brand positioning must strike the right balance between unique, original, and appropriate product qualities.
- The positioning must be sustainable and must be delivered to all the contacts and customers.
- The organisation must analyse if it is possible to achieve the end goal through this.
- The brand positioning must be able to sustain and boost the organisation.
Brand positioning involves recognising similarities and differences between various brands in the market to create the right brand image. Brand positioning is the key to marketing strategy. An ideal brand positioning directs the marketing strategy by describing the details and distinctive features of the brand. It is the foundation for providing the required knowledge and information to its customers.
There are different positioning errors-
- Under positioning: Under positioning is a condition in which the potential customers have a clouded idea and are unclear about the brand which is a result of not providing sufficient information to the target customers.
- Over positioning: Over positioning is a state in which the buyers attach a narrow image for a brand. They have a perception of a particular brand due to lack of knowledge about the brand or a preconceived notion. Example: Buyers believe that Zara only comes up with expensive textiles and accessories, while it has a range of products of different prices.
- Confused positioning: This is a situation where a brand comes up with too many associations with the product. This confuses the potential buyers and holds up the positioning schemes.
- Doubtful positioning: This is a condition when the buyer finds it very difficult to budge into the claims of the brand concerning products price and features, which is suggestive of an ineffective positioning strategy.
2. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS
Introducing a new product involves establishing how your product is different from the competitors. It is significant to determine and advertise a compelling reason for the customers to stick to the product. Example: Establish two key differences between your product and the competitors.
Preferably you need to design a product that is needed, one that solves certain problems or satiates certain desires. It could even mean pointing out a problem to the consumers who didn’t even know the problems existed.
The faster you get to your customers, the nearer you are to those influencing the others. Many customers may be slow buyers, and there is no point wasting your launch money on them. Instead, it’s better to allow the early adapters influence them through word-of-mouth.
3. OBTAINING OUTLETS
Advertising magnets new customers to a product. The trick is to find an outlet for advertising that fits into your business, budget and the target clientele. There are plenty of options to choose from such social, print or any other new media.
- Posting ads online that attract heavy traffic is one of the ways to spread a word about your business.
- Social networking sites like Twitter and Facebook have advertising pages that allow advertisers to target specific demographics.
- Social media is an attractive platform for advertising because promotion there has little or no monetary cost involved.
- A catchy punch line can enhance the effectiveness of a radio ad. Matching the station you choose with your demographics works like magic.
- A newspaper is a traditional outlet for advertising. Attaching a coupon or a feedback form can help you analyse the effectiveness.
4. DRAWING ATTENTION
- A good advertisement will draw the attention of a prospective customer; this is what every business house seeks other than the actual purchase.
- Customer attention is the most valuable resource for a business house. It powers the giant organisations.
- Attention is a complicated aspect of consciousness. Drawing customer attention is a short-term goal of advertising. Using clear and readable print, colours, and images in your ads attract the attention of the users.
- Example: “Start earning a tall salary today” appeals to readers who feel they are not making enough money.
5. PROMPTING IMMEDIATE ACTION
- Sales and Purchases keep the company alive.
- Media, print and other types of advertising prompt people to act instantly. You can include a coupon in your ad to prompt people to buy your product.
- Including a deadline for your coupon to let people know that the offer is only for a limited period of time is also a good idea to engage people.
- Offering a free trial for your product or even providing something for free along with that product can prompt immediate buying action.
- There are various strategies to prompt immediate buying action, example- A soap company may offer a spoon along with the purchase of two soaps or propagating that there are only limited stocks, can prompt buying action instantly.
6. INCREASING SALES
- Increasing sales is one of the most significant objectives of advertising.
- Advertisements are designed to increase sales and generate profits. Offline sales can be achieved by promoting an in-store sale online by providing digital coupons or vouchers.
- Sales can also be increased by focusing on product promotion through the company’s website. Such promotions can pursue conversion and branding objectives.
- Some businesses like the internet only use advertising to spread awareness about their products and services to the people. These companies do not have sales departments, so they can only sell products and earn profits if they are actively advertising.
7. MAINTAINING CONTACTS AND RELATIONSHIPS
- Effective client engagement and enhancing relationships is also one of the advertising objectives.
- Maintaining contacts and relationships is often the goal of many social campaigns, which aims at effective interaction with the consumers to enhance their experience with the brand.
8. BRAND SWITCH AND SWITCHING BACK
- Brand switching objectives fundamentally hold good for those organizations who want to attach the customers of their competitors to their brands. In brand switching, the advertiser tries to convince the customers to switch from their existing brand to their product.
- Switching back objective holds good for those companies who want to bring back their customers, who have switched from their brand to their competitors brand. The advertisers take various measures to magnet the customers back like discount sales, reworked packages and also by coming up with brand new advertisements.
EXAMPLES OF ADVERTISING
We are showered with advertisements in various mediums like the television advertisements, advertisements on air, ads on our mobile phones, newspapers, billboards, and so on. We mostly encounter advertisements everywhere.
Vodafone’s wherever you go, your network follows was a very popular TV advertisement.
The brand teamed up with Wired to promote the Moto X’s customisation, where people could change the colour of the phone by pushing buttons.
DIGITAL VIDEO ADVERTISEMENTS
Digital video advertisements are the advertisements made especially for internet and digital device users. These ads can be videos, images or text ads. The digital video ads are not restricted to 30 or 50-second slots.
These include billboards, hoardings, banners, flags, wraps etc. An example of outdoor advertising is hoarding of the Burger King.
Recent research from McCann Truth Central, ‘The Truth about Advertising’ set out to discover what people really think of advertising and the industry as a whole. The study compared consumer responses with those of the industry; in addition to a 1,000-strong nationally representative customer survey, an industry survey was answered by almost 500 executives of different levels and roles. Finally, the study aimed to find the ways that can help elevate perceptions of the industry and thereby attract the best talent. It is within this framework that the key truths of advertising emerged.