Rose (genus Rosa) is one of the most popular plants mainly grown for its flowers. Also known as the ‘Queen of Flowers’, Rose comes from Rosaceae family which include almost 100 species.
Rose flowers have been known for their variety of colours from red, pink to dark purple and white, each colour depicting a different feeling or symbolizing a different meaning. Roses have been known for Love, Beauty, Politics and even War from a long time ago but mostly they are popular as the Symbol of Love.
Cultivation of Roses can be linked back to Greek and Roman times. Although Roses (wild) are grown in every corner of the world in habitats ranging from forests, mountains and coastlines for commercial benefits, mainly they are native to Asia and some parts of Europe, North America and Africa.
According to the palaeontological research, Rose is 35 million years old. Its cultivation has begun in 500 BC and people started cultivating it in their gardens, probably first in China, around 5000 years back. Earlier, Rose was cultivated for medicinal, fragrance and decorative purposes but now the cultivation of Rose is a major industry and not only for its flowers but for roots and stem as well.
Wild Roses are the parent Roses from which the modern-day Roses are produced. These original Roses (wild) or true Roses were crossbred with other variety of plants to produce vibrant coloured modern Roses. The modern Rose species is highly resilient and can grow in any type of environmental condition. Due to hybridization of Rose species, there is an overlapping of species due to which it has become difficult to preserve the original species.
In this lesson, we will learn about the Root system of Rose plants along with their uses and some interesting facts about Rose plants all over the world. Let us begin with Plant specifications of Rose Plant.
- Rose is a perennial plant which forms a variety of plants ranging from shrubs, climbers, erect and trailers.
- Roses have sharp prickles along their stem which are commonly known as thorns.
- Size of the Rose plant depends on the type of species. Some species have Rose plant reaching up to a height of 23 feet. Grandiflora Roses grow from 8 to 10 feet tall, and hybrid Tea Roses range between 3 and 7 feet high. Species of Rose which are shorter in height are called as bushy Roses.
- Leaves of Rose Plant are alternate and pinnately compound having a neatly toothed oval leaflet.
- Wild Roses have 5 petals and 5 sepals while in hybrid Roses these numbers increases. A large number of petals of Roses is a result of mutation.
- Size of the flower also ranges from 1.75 cm (in diameter) in original species to 17.5 cm (in diameter) in hybrid species.
Roots of Rose Plant
Roots are the first structure to arise from seeds and to lay the foundation for the development of a plant. Therefore it is as crucial to understand the root system of a plant as to understand any other system. In the case of Rose Plants too, Roots play a very important role.
The Roots of Rose Plants initially sprouts into a Taproot system but gradually the thinner roots start emerging from the base ultimately forming a Fibrous Root System. Roots of Rose Plant have thin fibre-like extensions that are spread horizontally into the soil and helps in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil. Fibrous Root System has roots spread laterally forming a mat-like structure to support the upper soil surface.
As the plant grows, some of the roots get converted into (a)woody roots due to their secondary growth. The main role of these woody roots is to provide a medium of connection for the thinner roots of the Rose Plant. These thick roots help in keeping the bushes of Roses upright. Also, they store nutrients inside their cells as a stock for the dormant winter seasons while the thin, fibre-like roots, also called as (b)feeders, absorb water and nutrients directly from the soil and make it available for the plant’s immediate uses. Newly rooted Rose Plants having a fewer number of woody roots are highly vulnerable.
Grafting Of Roses
Not all Roses grow on their roots. Most of the modified Rose plants are grown by the processing of Grafting. Grafting is a process in which one portion of a plant (Scion) is placed over another plant’s root, stem or branch (Stock). Once these two portions are fixed with the help of a tape, they’re allowed to grow together which leads to the formation of a new variety of plant.
Grafting is done to adapt the characteristics of two plants into one. For example, Tea Rose plant which is commercially very popular is a hybrid which uses the rootstock of Dr Huey Rose plant. Dr Huey which was introduced in 1914 is a dark red hybrid which is now used primarily in the Rose breeding business as a rootstock for Roses. Greenhouse production time of grafted roots is less and therefore they are cheaper to the Gardners.
Planting Rose from their cuttings
Unlike other plants, it is very easy to grow a plant from their cuttings. Cuttings are simply part of the plant’s stem taken at various stages of their growth. When a seed is sown, it leads to the formation of a different plant but the stem cuttings of a plant lead to the formation of the exact same copy of their parents. Some plants require specific growth stages at which we can cut their stems which will lead to the formation of a new plant but Roses are very flexible and their cuttings can be taken from any stage. Following are some points to be kept in mind while planting a Rose from cuttings.
- Cuttings should be planted immediately after they’re taken off.
- Cuttings should be 6-8 inches long having at least 4 nodes.
- It is very important to place the cutting 4-6 inches deeper into the bed covering at least two nodes.
- Plant the cuttings only under indirect sunlight. Direct sunlight may damage the stem.
- Keep the bed moist and covered until the roots grow. Water the soil regularly.
Uses of Rose Plant
- Roses are grown mainly for decorative purposes.
- They’re popular worldwide for their visual appeal and fragrances.
- Women wear Roses as a floral ornament and they give a touch of elegance.
- Eating the petals of Rose improves blood pressure and is very useful in curing heart diseases.
- Paste prepared from Rose petals provides quick healing.
- Dried fruits of wild Rose is rich in vitamin C and therefore is effective in curing diseases caused by vitamin C deficiencies e.g. Scurvy.
- Herbal Tea prepared from Rose petals helps in curing acidity and dryness of the oral cavity.
Beauty Benefits of Rose
- Oils extracted from Rose petals are useful for dry and mature skin and helps balance the hormones.
- It also maintains the skin’s pH level and controls excess skin oil.
- Rosewater has antibacterial properties, therefore, it aids in healing scars, cuts and wounds.
- Rosewater has antioxidant properties as well which strengthen the skin cells and regenerate skin tissues.
- Due to the amusing fragrance of Rose petals, they are used in the preparation of various scented perfumes for ladies and room fresheners as well.
Culinary uses of Rose
- Apart from having cosmetics uses, Roses are also used in many food items like many syrups, essences, jams are prepared from Rose.
- Rose is used as a flavouring agent.
- Rose is used as a food colouring agent too.
- Rose herbal tea is very popular and even has medicinal properties.
- Crushed Dry Rose petals are sprinkled over various Indian desserts like Rabri, Ras malai, kheer flavoured kulfi, Sandesh etc.
Interesting Facts about Rose
35 million years old
- The oldest fossil of Rose plant which was found in Colorado dates back from 35 million years ago.
The Thousand-year Rose
- The average age of a Rose plant is 35 years but they can go on much longer.
- The thousand-year Rose is a Rose plant that climbs up the wall of apse of the Hildesheim Cathedral, a Catholic cathedral in Hildesheim, Germany, which is believed to be the oldest living rose in the world.
- It is estimated that the age of this Rose is about a thousand years.
The Black Rose of Turkey
- The Black Rose of Turkey is not black but instead, it has a dark red crimson colour which appears to be black to the eyes.
- Out of all the colours, there are no black Roses in the world.
- Rose is one of the only three flowers mentioned in the Holy Bible, other being Lillies and Camphire.