If a force applied to an object causes its structure to get damaged temporarily or permanently, the force is known as the deforming force. Usually, the characteristics that get changed when a deforming force is applied include size, shape, or position. When a deforming force is said to be acting on a body, it gets strained. Deformation is produced in a body due to the change in the relative position of the molecules of the object. In a nutshell, a deforming force is accountable for change in the configuration of the structure of an object.
Types of Deformations
1. Elastic Deformation
A deformation is said to be elastic in nature if the structure regains its original shape and size when the effect of the external force is removed. It leads to a temporary change in the configuration of the object.
2. Inelastic Deformation
An inelastic deformation is a deformation that is irreversible and can not be undone easily by removing the external force. It leads to a permanent change to the structure of the object. It is also known as plastic deformation.
Examples of Deforming Force
1. Breaking a Pencil
When an external force is exerted on a pencil, it tends to break into parts. This happens because a pencil is not elastic in nature, and therefore, it does not have a high capacity to handle a large amount of force and pressure. Hence, when a deforming mechanical force with a considerably high magnitude is made to act onto the structure of the pencil for a long duration of time, it gets deformed.
2. Bending Metal Rods
Metals possess a significant amount of elasticity in them. This is the reason that enables them to be converted in the form of rods and sheets. On applying a mechanical force to a metal rod, it does not break or shatter easily. However, the force might help the metallic element to undergo a change in shape. Hence, a deforming force is said to be present.
3. Glass Shattering
When a glass is applied with a deforming force, it usually gets shattered into multiple pieces. This deforming force can be either a mechanical force, which comes into play when a heavy object is made to strike the structure of the glass, or it can be an impulse force, which comes into action by a sudden change in momentum. The shattering or deformation of glass in this case is irreversible and permanent in nature. Hence, plastic deformation is said to be existing.
4. Stress Ball
A stress ball is usually made up of foam rubber. It is designed in such a manner that it regains its original shape after undergoing deformation. The mechanical force applied to a stress ball that tends to alter its shape temporarily is known as deformation force. The change in shape stays till the external force acts on the ball.
5. Stretching a Rubber Band
When a pull force is applied to a rubber band from both ends or by keeping one end at a stationary position while pulling the other, a deforming force comes into action that causes a change in the length of the band. When the length of the band gets temporarily extended, a significant change in the original shape of the rubber band can be observed. However, this change is short-term because the original shape of the rubberband is restored as soon as the external force is removed.
When a certain amount of force is used to crush, twist, or tear a paper it gets deformed temporarily or permanently depending on the nature and the intensity of the force applied. Here, the mechanical force applied to the paper, that causes damage to the original composition of the paper, is known as the deforming force.
7. Bending of a Scale
When a plastic ruler or a scale is subjected to an external mechanical force, it causes deformation to the linear structure of the object. The ruler bends when the force is made to act on it. If the external force is removed, the ruler regains its original shape. Hence, elastic or temporary deformation is said to be existing. However, if the external force is not removed, and the magnitude of the force is further increased, the ruler breaks into pieces. In such a case, plastic or permanent deformation takes place.
8. Crushing a Plastic Bottle
When a plastic bottle is crushed, its original shape is lost. The bottle develops a new deformed structure after being compressed. The force that is required to crush or deform the structure of the bottle is known as the deforming force. This deforming force can either be temporary or permanent in nature.