The Industrial Revolutions began in Great Britain and then spread to the United States and the world. This revolution is called the First Industrial Revolution. There were several causes for the revolution to take place.
Economic and Political Competition in Europe
By the middle of the 18th century, most of the European countries were rising colonial powers and the competition to be the superpower was always rising. The British indulged in many wars and the need to keep up with the demands of the wars and the rising population put a lot of pressure on Britain to produce more.
The rise in scientific temperament in Europe and the innovations that generated new ideas was also a major contribution to the industrial revolution. Scientific revolution brought about conceptual, social, and cultural changes in society and made the British more scientific in their approach, eventually leading to innovations like the power loom and the telegraphy system.
The agricultural revolution in Britain that led to the discovery of new crops and new methods for farming also contributed to the industrial revolution. The agricultural revolution led to increased food production which meant that more population could be fed at lesser prices and in an efficient manner. This led to an increased population of the urban workforce that was employed in industries.
Policies of the Government
Government policies like the ones that allowed the inflow of immigrants and the patent system contributed to the industrial revolution. The immigrants brought with them new skills and contributed to the development of the industries in Britain.
Control over India
In the 18th century, Britain controlled India and the rich resources of India, namely, natural, human, and agricultural resources formed the backbone of Britain. The British colonies in India served as a source of raw materials for the British industries.
Availability of Coal and Iron
The number of coal and iron reserves in Britain were many and these led to the development of industries. With efforts to improve the transportation of coal and iron and to reduce their cost, these were used for industries as raw materials and also to power them.
With the presence of financial institutions and improved trade and commerce, it became possible for wealth or capital to be created in Britain. The rise of Capitalism led to more investment and wealth and increased the available capital to a great extent. With more finance available, it was easy for the industries to grow and develop in Britain.
Improved Transport System
In the 18th century, the transport system in Britain improved. There were better rail and road systems that helped to improve the transportation of coal and other raw materials to the industry. The improved canal system also made it easy to transport raw materials to the industries.
By becoming a dominant power across the world, Britain was able to improve its industries and make a lot of progress. Likewise, scientific and agricultural revolution added to the development of industries in Britain and brought about industrial revolution