The American Revolution was a period of revolutionary wars that started because of the growing tension between the residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government. The revolution ended with America winning its independence. The reasons for the conflicts were tax laws, placing troops in America as well as the ineffective policies of the colonial government.
British Reforms (1763-1766)
The French and Indian War came to an end in 1763. Great Britain had been able to defeat France, but this victory came at a huge cost. Great Britain reeled under heavy debt and the sole attention of the British Crown was on the repayment of the debt. Another problem for the British was maintaining good relations with the native tribes of America and because of the bad relations, the British decided to keep a standing army in America. To tighten control over the empire, the British also imposed regulatory laws on imperial trade and navigation. The British also implemented the Sugar Act in 1764 that raised the taxes to be paid on molasses. The Stamp Act of 1765 imposed taxes on paper, playing cards, and legal documents and this increased the dissent in the Americans.
The First Shots
The first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired in April 1775. This clash took place in Lexington and Concord and the American patriots were preparing for it by collecting arms and training to fight against the British if the need arose. In Boston, the British commander, Gage, had been cautious and did not want to provoke the Americans. However, he was ordered to arrest some patriots who were entering Lexington and this started a firefight. The Americans, however, were divided on their opinion, and while some wanted independence immediately, others wanted to wait and watch.
The Revolutionary War (1775-1777)
After the first 18 months of conflict with the British at Boston, General Washington started to create an army and forced the British to evacuate the city of Bostin in 1776. In August 1776, a fleet of British army attacked New York. In this conflict, the generals of the US Army made several mistakes and because of the superior naval power of the British, were defeated and the British were able to emerge victorious at Long Island and Manhattan. The next move of the British under General Cornwallis was to attack New Jersey. In December 1776, Washington counterattacked in Trenton and then in 1977 in Princeton.
The Revolutionary War (1776-1777)
In early 1777, the British officials considered several plans for their campaigns. One of the first decisions was to campaign through the Hudson River and cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. However, most of the plans of the British army fell flat and the American Army was able to emerge victorious at several places. These victories also made France an ally of the Americans and the American Independence War was in full swing.
The Revolutionary War (1778-1781)
The victory of the Americans in 1777 and the Treaty with the French in 1778 transformed the war. This made the British change their strategy again and they started to focus on the loyalists believing they were strong. The British were also able to win some important positions in the South but were faced with logistics problems. The British army was not able to get many supplies while the Continental Army was able to maintain a steady flow of all essential supplies, leading to the failure of the British army in the South.
Influence of Revolutionary War on the Domestic Scene
The American Revolution had a great impact on the domestic scene of America. The native tribes fought with the British on their own and were considered a threat by the patriots. The African Americans also fought in the Continental Army to gain freedom. The role of women changed during the war years; many women emerged as managers or owners of businesses and were also seen offering their services at military camps.
American Revolution (1781-1783)
The year 1781 was a momentous one for the American Revolution as the opinion was that America had to achieve a significant military victory to win its independence. The American forces started siege operations under their able generals. Eventually, they lost some important positions, and the generals focused on keeping the Continental Army intact. However, the war went on for the next two years and in November 1782, the Preliminary Articles of Peace were signed between the British and American diplomats.
The war finally came to an end in 1783 and America won its independence. America continued to experiment with how to govern and a constitution was formulated for the new nation.
- The American Revolution was a period of several revolutionary wars against the British colonial government.
- The revolution was a result of the ineffective governance of the colonial government and the widespread call for independence.
- The revolution saw the rise of the Continental Army and several able generals.
- During the revolution, France sided with America and this gave the required impetus to the war.
The war ended in 1783 and America eventually became an independent nation.