One of the simplest definitions of sustainable development has been given by the UN World Commission on Environment and Development, which states that “The development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is called sustainable development.” The notion of sustainable development focuses on developing techniques to meet the current energy requirements without damaging the environment. Sustainable development got recognition in the year 1987. The fact that the human population is growing exponentially and the conventional sources of energy are not sufficient enough to generate energy for a long duration of time inspired the idea of sustainable development. It involves promoting the use of non-conventional renewable sources of energy and recycling.
1. Wind Energy
Wind energy is one of the most popular non-conventional sources of energy. It is mainly used in the coastal regions where the wind velocity is higher. Being abundantly available in nature, wind energy is a highly reliable source of energy. Therefore, utilizing wind to meet the energy requirements does not harm the environment. Hence, it is a prominent example of sustainable development.
2. Solar Energy
Solar energy is a clean source of energy generation that does not cause any harm to the environment or to human health. It makes use of the sun’s heat and light radiations to generate thermal or electrical energy. There are many advantages of using solar energy including stable energy price, inexhaustible energy, etc. It is yet another notable example of sustainable development.
3. Crop Rotation
Crop rotation is the process of planting different crops in the same location after consecutive seasons. This helps in restoring the nutrients back to the soil before sowing the next crop. Crop rotation effectively reduces the risk of nitrate by minimizing the need for nitrogen fertilizer. It considerably improves soil structure and diminishes soil erosion. This results in lowering down water pollution and the greenhouse effect. Hence, the crop rotation technique comes under the category of substantial development.
4. Sustainable Construction
The process of building and construction uses a lot of resources and produces waste material in bulk. This damages the land by reducing its water-retaining capacity. With the help of sustainable construction procedures, these unfavorable outcomes can be significantly minimized. Employing sustainable construction measures allows the person-in-charge to utilize eco-friendly products as raw material for construction. Thereby, decreasing the adverse side effects caused to the land and various other resources. It also terminates the need for rebuilding a structure and reduces the existing water pollution.
5. Efficient Water Fixtures
A significant amount of water gets wasted daily during everyday water-consuming activities, such as bathing, showering, washing dishes, etc. Proper use of water fixtures reduces the amount of water that gets wasted during consumption by supplying only the required quantity of water. Employing this technique in everyday life supports the ideology of water conservation.
6. Green Space
The urban areas are rich in artificially constructed fascinating structures, but they lack greenery. Adding green spaces to a modern urban area adds a natural touch to the appearance of the city or town. It also helps in balancing the air quality index by regulating the proper flow of oxygen in the surroundings. It reduces heat generation by providing shade and synchronizing the flow of air, thereby reducing air pollution. Planting trees and shrubs in suburban areas notably helps in diminishing soil erosion.
7. Sustainable Forestry
Sustainable forestry is making use of suitable measures to protect the forests. By following some basic steps, for example, by avoiding deforestation and promoting afforestation, a number of environmental issues can be controlled. These measures are necessary to establish ecological stability and improve environmental health. The genetic diversity of the trees can also be suitably expanded by employing sustainable forestry procedures. This helps in maintaining soil fertility and provides proper habitat for the wildlife.
8. Sustainable Transportation
A remarkable amount of pollutants are generated from vehicles and automobiles. By making use of sustainable transportation techniques the number of these pollutants can be minimized, thereby reducing air pollution, land pollution, noise pollution, etc. The idea of sustainable transportation includes carpooling, using CNG vehicles, and promoting eco-friendly transportation mediums such as cycles, public transport, etc. It also improves the air quality index and helps in reducing the carbon content in the environment.
9. Hydropower Sustainability
Hydropower is one of the best methods to generate energy for commercial and personal consumption. It makes use of the law of conservation of energy under which the energy is converted from one form to another without getting lost. Hydropower releases a negligible amount of carbon content and pollutants into the air. Therefore, it is an air pollution-free method of energy generation. No waste products are released openly into the water bodies, thereby making it water pollution resistant. These characteristics are responsible for the listing of hydropower under the category of sustainable development.
10. Sustainable Fishing
Fishing is one of the most popular sources of food for humans as well as for wildlife. Practicing fishing culture has been a trend since the beginning of the human age. In the coastal areas, fishing provides occupation to a large population. Sustainable fishing allows the fishers to operate ships that consume less diesel. It also allows them to navigate through the places beforehand in order to predict the weather conditions and better location of the fishes. This advanced judgment of the number of fishes allows them to increase their profits and reduce their efforts.
11. Waste Recycling
The process of waste generation while performing any process is inevitable. This waste needs to be managed properly. Sustainable development suggests a number of ideas to develop useful products out of this waste. One such idea is to convert the waste into energy. This helps in reducing the need for fossil fuels, thereby minimizing the adverse side effects caused to the earth and its environment. The process of waste to energy conversion helps to overcome the scarcity of energy; moreover, it helps in proper waste management. Waste recycling can also be used to generate new products that can be further used constructively.
12. Community Food Forest
A community food forest represents a group of a number of trees that are able to produce edible products. Building a community food forest is one of the best methods of utilizing an existing free open space. It helps to overcome the problem of food scarcity by providing an easily accessible source of food to the general public. The advantage of building a community food forest is that even if the food production is low, it still provides an area that can serve as the green space region.