Solid-state batteries are quite similar to that of lithium-ion batteries. The only difference is that a solid-state battery consists of a solid electrolyte in place of a liquid electrolyte. Materials such as glass, ceramic, etc., can be used for this purpose.
Construction of Solid-State Battery
A solid-state battery makes use of solid electrodes as well as solid electrolytes. The solid electrolytes include oxides, sulfides, phosphates, polyethers, polyesters, nitrile-based, polysiloxane, polyurethane, etc. The performance of the battery depends on the type of electrolyte used. Ceramics are suitable for rigid battery systems due to their high elastic moduli, while low elastic moduli of polymers make them fit for flexible devices.
Working of Solid-State Battery
The working of a solid-state battery is quite similar to that of a lithium-ion battery. The anode and cathode of the battery are made up of electrically conductive materials. An electrolyte is present between the two electrodes that contain the charged ion particles. The lithium ions move through the electrolyte between the electrodes. This movement of charged particles in a particular direction produces current. When the ions move from the cathode to the anode, i.e., from the positive electrode to the negative electrode, it is said to be charging. Similarly, the movement of ions in the reverse direction, i.e., from the anode to the cathode discharges the battery and supplies the current to the load.
Advantages of Solid-State Battery
1. Solid-state batteries are capable of delivering 2.5 times more energy density as compared to lithium-ion batteries.
2. Solid-state batteries are comparatively more durable and safe.
3. The solid electrolyte used in solid-state batteries is non-flammable, hence they are less prone to catch fire.
4. Solid-state batteries are comparatively less expensive and compact in nature.
5. The greater electrochemical stability of solid-state batteries make them more reliable.
6. Solid-state batteries are comparatively lighter in weight.
7. The recharge rate of solid-state batteries is 4-6 times more than regular batteries.
8. A solid-state battery does not contain any volatile element.
Disadvantages of Solid-State Battery
1. The mass production and manufacturing of solid-state batteries are quite complex.
2. Research regarding solid-state batteries is still in progress and the perfect material for the electrolyte with an ideal ionic conductivity is yet to be found.
Uses of Solid-State Battery
1. Solid-state batteries are highly used in medical devices such as pacemakers, defibrillators, etc.
2. A number of gardening tools and equipment such as a lawnmower, etc., make use of solid-state batteries.
3. Automobile industry employs solid-state batteries at a large scale to power various electric vehicles.
4. Solid-state batteries have a variety of applications in the manufacturing and production industries.
5. Aerospace and satellites generally use solid-state batteries to power various gadgets and devices because they are light in weight and are non-flammable.