Project Implementation, Control, and Closure

ed, then a formal request for the change is initiated. Anyone from the project team or any key stakeholder or a client can forward such requests.

Identification of Alternate Solutions

This includes evaluating the change request and identifying different alternate solutions. Alternatives should be assessed as per the functional scope, cost, schedule, and effort.

Making a decision on the Change Actions

In this step, the change request, different alternate solutions along with recommendations are presented to the project management team. The team will accept the recommendation, and make decisions related to either choosing an alternate solution or requesting further investigation. Accordingly, the selection of a final action plan for the change is done.

Implementing Change

After getting approval from the project manager for an appropriate solution for the change, the schedule is made accordingly and adjustments in other project plans are done for accommodating the change. Further, these are communicated to team members of the project, progress is monitored, and quality control is executed on the changes.

Tools for Process Change

Different tools are there that can be used for process change. These tools can be broadly categorized into two types i.e. Change Management System (CMS) and Configuration Management (CM).

Change Management System (CMS)

This is considered a methodology that includes collecting all formal procedures in documented form and that defines:

  • How the performance of a project is evaluated and monitored.
  • The way to update project plans.
  • The process through which different measures are implemented for change control.

According to the project requirements, there may be uniqueness in these procedures.  It also consists of procedures to control those changes for which, the approval can be granted without prior review.

Configuration Management (CM)

The configuration Management system includes managing changes that are related to product scope. As per the definition of PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge), the main focus of the configuration control is on specifications related to the processes and deliverables.

In configuration management, changes that are related to the specification and process of the product are managed. For instance, during product development, the client’s requirement is there to do some addition related to extra features. This change is concerned with a product’s configuration, so this change will be handled using a configuration management system.

So, configuration management is considered a process that defines configurable items such as component, product, process, result, and control changes related to these items.

This system includes the following:

  • Identification of configuration items
  • To define the scheme of naming and numbering
  • To structure the changes
  • To define the authority and responsibility related to change management system
  • To follow the methods to track the status related to configuration items.

Risk Management


Risks are considered uncertain events or circumstances and the occurrence of these events can affect a project in a positive or negative way.

Risk Management

Risk management includes identifying risks and taking appropriate actions to reduce the negative effects of these risks on the project.

The main elements of risk management are as under:

  • Risk Assessment
  • Prioritizing risk
  • Risk Control, and
  • Risk Mitigation

Risk Assessment

Identifying the possible risks and assessing the outcomes come under risk assessment. This is done in different ways such as checklists related to possible risks, meetings, surveys, processes, brainstorming, and products. Process database can also be used by the project manager to obtain information related to risks and risk management.

Prioritizing Risk

Risks are ranked according to their effects and probability on the project. For instance, the higher rank will be there of an item having a high probability and high impact as compared to a risk item that has a high impact but medium probability.

Risk Control

This includes identifying the actions required to keep the risk consequences at a minimum level. For this, a risk management plan is developed and risks of highest priority are focused. It is required to analyze the possible effects related to the risk event for prioritization. The assessment of the risk probability and the risk consequences in quantitative terms is required in this approach. The rate of occurrence of each risk is determined that will further indicate the category of risk such as low, medium, or high.

Risk Mitigation

In risk mitigation, the few risk items of top-level are selected for mitigation and tracking.  For this, the list of risk mitigation steps used on a common basis is referred from the earlier risk logs and the suitable risk mitigation step is selected from these risk logs. The proper execution of the risk mitigation steps must be insured by including them in steps of risk mitigation.

Project Closure

The closing of a project will also be successful if it is planned and executed properly as per the plan. It is required to monitor and control all aspects of the project for its successful completion. These aspects consist of cost analysis, resources that are utilized, and time and efforts involved.

Closure Types

Closure of a project can be of different types as mentioned in the below diagram:

Effective Project Closure

The closure of a project is considered effective when it meets the following:

  • Proper handover of all documentation.
  • Installation of all deliverables is ensured.
  • The acceptance of deliverables from stakeholders is ensured.
  • Review or audit after or post-implementation.
  • Success celebration.

Post Implementation Review

There may be a possibility to review minor changes or modifications after the implementation of every stage of a project. This is considered a post-implementation review. This review is undertaken in below four steps:

Review of Final Product

The requirements of the subsequent stage must be fulfilled by the product that is obtained from that stage. If the product is able to meet the defined objectives fully, then the focus will be shifted to issues related to the maintenance of processes and performance of the product. However, if all the objectives are not fulfilled by the final product, then variation in the product will be identified and analyzed.

Review of Outstanding Project Work

It is observed that many times some items may be there in the projects that are still not in the condition of being complete. So, these items should be resolved and such open items should be closed by taking necessary steps.

Review of the Project

It is required to review a project from its initial stage to the completion stage. Different aspects such as the project’s objectives, criteria of performance and financial aspects, utilization of resources, plans, etc. should be reviewed. Well-documentation of such details and reports of review has to be done for future use.

Review of Process

All processes of a project are equally important. These processes may be reviewed to determine any changes that can be done to improve the performance of these processes.

Final Project Reporting and Documentation

The project is documented after the completion of the whole project. Report preparation is done to show details. This step requires reviewing the objectives and corresponding plans of a project. If there are any outstanding items then those items should be transferred to the person liable to complete that work.  There is a need to document every review meeting held with the project team and other stakeholders of the project firm as well as follow-ups.

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