Introduction To Mango Tree
The Mango tree is a tropical plant belongs to a cashew family of Anacardiaceae. The genus of Mango trees is Mangifera and it currently consists of nearly 69 species all over the world while the Mango (Mangifera indica) being the most common species that is found everywhere in the tropical regions of the world. Mangifera indica is also commonly known as ‘Indian Mango’ as it is native to South Asia and has been distributed into the tropic regions of the world from this place only. In fact, the name Mango is an alteration from a Malayalam word ‘Maanga’ which means fruits. Mango trees are rich yielders of edible fruits, especially in summers.
Being a tropical plant it is one of the largest fruit grown worldwide. Mango is native to the Indian Subcontinent while many varieties of Mango trees have been introduced in temperate places of the world. Mango fruit is a drupe fruit/stone fruit which is a fruit of many varieties of tropical tree species belonging to the genus Mangifera. Mango fruits are known for their juicy pulp and texture.
Mango tree has a southeastern origin and was first introduced in California (1880). It consists of two races, that is, one from India and other from the Philippines. Due to the humongous popularity of Mango fruits in India, it has affectionately been termed as the king of the fruits, where it is indigenous too. Mango fruit is also named as the National Fruit of India, Pakistan and Philippines and the Mango tree (Mangifera indica) is regarded as the National Tree of Bangladesh.
Varieties of Mangoes found in India are Chaunsa, Banganapalli or Safeda, Sindoora, Kesar, Langra, Dasehri, Mulgoba, Himsagar, Neelam, Himam Pasand, Alphonso and Totapuri.
- The Mango tree is evergreen and reaches up to a height of 115 to 131 feet (35-40 m) having a crown size of 66 feet (20 m) in diameter.
- The flowering system contains both stamens and pistils whereas in some exceptions they contain only pistils.
- The flowers are long glossy green coloured on a pinkish rachis.
- The mango fruits differ in shape, colour and their regions of growth.
- Fruits are generally kidney-shaped and have a yellowish colour generally whereas in some varieties they have a red to pinkish colour.
- Although Mango trees are best known for their fruits their wood can be utilized for various purposes later once the tree has completed its reproductive lifespan.
- Mango trees are long-lived and some trees even fruit up to 300 years of their lifetime.
- The leaves of Mango trees change their colours as they grow from pink in early development to red to dark green as the plant matures.
- The fruits of Mango tree are yellow, red or orange and are kidney-shaped. They mostly ripe in summers and takes around four to five months in the complete process of flowering to ripening.
Root System Of Mango Tree
Mango is having a well-defined Tap root system which can extend up to 20 feet (6 meters ). Taproots are the roots consists of one thick, cylindrical main root, known as the primary root, from which further branches of roots arises known as the secondary and the tertiary roots. At the tip of the tertiary root, the thin hair-like structure is present, known as the rootlets which are responsible for major water absorption from the soil. These types of roots tend to be deep-rooted and is difficult to uproot.
Apart from penetrating deep into the soil as a characteristic feature of the taproots, the roots of Mangifera indica grows sidewards as well and branch out to absorb moisture and nutrients from the soil surface. This kind of root system provides great support to the upper part of the tree and helps to stabilize the tall plants. The roots of Mango trees are wild feeders and invasive.
Roots Help to store the carbohydrates which play an important role in the growth and development of the plant. The taproot system due to its branching may look like a fibrous root system, but these are the taproots which grow sidewards on the upper part of the roots to get the moisture and nutrients from the upper surface of the soil which gives an appearance of the fibrous root system.
Uses of Mango
- Mango trees are cultivated worldwide in tropics mainly for their pulpy and juicy sweet fruits.
- Leaves of the Mango trees are also very useful. They contain tannins and it helps in managing diabetes. They’re also helpful in maintaining the blood sugar level and treats kidney stones. They’re also believed to be rich in antioxidants.
- The fruit of Mango is rich in iron which is helpful in preventing anaemia.
- The dried bark of Mango if consumed in the form of powder cures Diarrhoea.
- The white coloured extract that seeps out of the bark when plucked can be applied on the bee sting to get relief from the pain.
- In India, the leaves of the Mango trees are hung in the entrance during weddings as a good omen in order to ensure an abundance of future children and also for good fortune.
- In Hindu mythology, the Mango tree is considered sacred and the Hindus believe that it is a ‘Home of Gods’. Various Indian poets like Kalidas, Amir Khusrau, Mirza Ghalib et Cetra, have mentioned Mango tree in their poems. The Mango leaves are used during holy practices by the priests as they’re regarded as pure while praying.
- The leaves of Mango trees are also consumed by many through tea made up of leaf infusion.